Medicaid Home and Community-Based Services Programs: 2012 Data Update

November 2015
Terence Ng, Charlene Harrington, MaryBeth Musumeci, and Erica L. Reaves
Chart showing growth in Medicaid HCBS participants by program, 2002-2012.

As states continue to implement various aspects of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), developing and expanding home and community-based alternatives to institutional care remains a priority for many state Medicaid programs. 2013 marked the first time that home and community-based services (HCBS) accounted for the majority of national Medicaid long-term services and supports (LTSS) dollars (51%), increasing from 18 percent in 1995.0F1 State Medicaid programs are operating in an environment of sustained economic improvement and as of 2015, continue to face the competing priorities of implementing the ACA’s streamlined eligibility and enrollment processes, determining whether to adopt the ACA’s Medicaid expansion, and pursuing a variety of delivery and payment system reforms. States also continue to have access to some of ACA’s new and expanded LTSS options, some of which offer enhanced federal matching funds, to expand beneficiary access to Medicaid HCBS.

This report summarizes the key national trends to emerge from the latest (2012) participant and expenditure data for the three main Medicaid HCBS programs: (1) the mandatory home health services state plan benefit, (2) the optional personal care services state plan benefit, and (3) optional § 1915(c) HCBS waivers. It also briefly discusses the provision of Medicaid HCBS through § 1115 demonstration waivers and highlights findings from a 2014 survey of Medicaid HCBS participant eligibility, enrollment, and provider reimbursement policies. States also may provide HCBS through various options offered by the ACA, which are outside the scope of this report.

Last modified Mar 18, 2016